ࡱ> ;=:'` R'bjbj<>zzzzzzz D (6        $^htz     zz  { { {  z z k  { { zz{   NZ  { 0({ :) 0:{ :z{ ,Y    Y    (    dzzzzzz PTWS Funding Strategy - How to secure necessary funds or alternatives? - 1. Introduction PTWS Funding Strategy aims for securing necessary funds or alternatives to perform its various activities prescribed in its Medium Term Strategy and the Implementation Plan. PTWS activities have been conducted on two kinds of budget: Regular and Extra budgets. Regular budget is allocated by the governing body, UNESCO/IOC. The current situation is that the regular budget is small amount so that PTWS activities highly depend on extra budgetary contributions of donation by Member States through Trust Funds and of concerned organizations such as ISDR, UNDP and aid or technical agencies such as AusAID, USAid, JICA, Cosude or DIPECHO. Besides those, there is an implicit budget: national regular budget of each Member State (MS) for its own tsunami warning and mitigation activities or budget offered by bilateral cooperation programs between MS and donor country for the same purpose. Budget for operating existent ocean-wide or regional tsunami warning/advisory centers of the PTWS is of the same kind. It will have passed 5 years this December since the Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster. For these years, huge amount of financial support has been provided to assist tsunami disaster prevention activities in the world. Although the large part of it is for affected counties in the Indian Ocean to recover from the damage or to construct countermeasure mechanisms, other regions including the Pacific have also received benefits, for example, of increased opportunity for capacity building and tsunami awareness programs. On the other hand, it is also true that a stage of emergent and temporary support is thought to have been almost over, with fund support programs decreasing. However, we can find that the biggest change in these 5 years is policymakers' as well as general peoples' correct recognition of tsunami disaster and its social impacts, which has resulted in increasing number of policies to attach importance on tsunami prevention measures. Even if the advances look relatively slow compared to the ones in the Indian Ocean region, establishing and improving facilities, system and mechanism for tsunami disaster prevention in each PTWS MS have progressed gradually and steadily. With a global economic crisis broken out last autumn, it would become much harder to expect big voluntary funding support from donors. Then we should make the most of existing available resources, mechanisms to continue our efforts to advance. Establishing such a way could contribute to ensuring sustainable tsunami warning and mitigation system in the end. 2. Funding Strategy Considering the situation mentioned in the previous section and by examining concrete cases in the past and implementation plan of MSs, we'd like to present funding strategy for PTWS as follows. Strategy 1: Involve relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations of the country Domestic tsunami warning and mitigation activities widely range from observation, data collection & analysis, tsunami estimates, warning issuance to risk assessment, disaster prevention education and public awareness. This implies a number of governmental ministries, agencies and other non-governmental organizations should be concerned. Viewing that, involvement of as many relevant organizations as possible can diversify the necessary expenditure for the whole activities. Besides, with the project acknowledged as a big national project, we can expect to secure more budgets from the government. To put this strategy into practice, it needs stakeholders' and policy makers' proper and sufficient recognition of the significance of tsunami disaster countermeasure activities, and for that purpose it would be effective to hold on-site capacity building by international organizations, symposiums and workshops cosponsored with research community, biannual ICG/PTWS Meeting and so on. Strategy 2: Make the most of Support Programs by donor nations and international organizations We have used various mechanisms of project support programs, fund support programs by donor nations or international organizations. To make the most of these support mechanisms with avoiding duplication and insufficiency of activities, it is beneficial to investigate those programs and compile them into a form that is easy for MSs to consult and choose an appropriate support program for their purpose. Strategy 3: Utilize existent observation networks, facilities and resources in cooperation with owner organizations Utilize Global Seismic Network and CTBTO Network for seismic observation and GLOSS sea level data for tsunami watch, for example. Also utilize existent systems like GTS, RANET etc. for the communication. The running and maintenance costs for the systems are covered by the owner organizations. It is also essential for tsunami risk assessment to receive assist from research community. IOC tsunami coordinating unit or TOWS-WG should take the role of arranging and coordinating the cooperation with these outer organizations that have resources usable for PTWS. To execute this strategy, it is indispensable to regard tsunami warning system as a part of multi-hazard early warning system. Strategy 4: Increase in IOC funds for Tsunami Program To increase budget amount allocated to the PTWS by IOC, it is necessary to increase the budget of IOC allocated tsunami relating programs. PTWS MSs along with PTWS secretary should make efforts to promote it through continually addressing in IOC Assembly or any possible opportunities with a stress on the importance of tsunami disaster preventing activities, reaffirming tsunami can affect various coastal environments. To increase extra budget used for the PTWS activities, it is as well important to continue requesting MSs for earmarked donation for PTWS activities. Strategy 5: Improvement and Development of Tsunami Warning/Advisory Centers To improve the service of existent ocean-wide and regional Tsunami Warning/Advisory Centers, the nations of owning and operating the centers should be encouraged to make continuous efforts to voluntarily secure their national budgets necessary for the tasks. Nations concerning future planned regional tsunami centers should also be encouraged to make the same efforts of securing national budgets needed for the project. The above strategy may not look so novelty. That actually implies there is no royal road to securing funds other than the ones we have considered and followed so far. Therefore, it would be important for us to work on anything we can deal with. Of course countermeasures of real urgent necessity should be highly prioritized and fulfilled immediately, which still doesn't contradict what we propose. Generally, minimum requirements for any PTWS MSs to take to construct tsunami warning system would be 1) establish a receiving mechanism of tsunami information, 2) establish communication mechanism to deliver tsunami warning to the end, and 3) establish people's evacuation mechanism. Just ensuring these measures could at least lessen human loss, some of which can be realized without so big fund. Tsunami warning and mitigation system should not necessarily be an ideal form from the start. Taking appropriate steps at each stage in accordance with the situation in each nation would be essential. 3. Best Practices In this section are shown two best practices concerning funding and alternatives for pursuing regional and national tsunami warning/mitigation activities. (1) South East Pacific region: Regional Cooperation An excellent example of establishing a regional cooperation in the region to have succeeded in urging the governments to secure a budget for constructing a seismic observation network --- details to be added --- (2) Samoa: Establishing National system Rapid and effective achievements of establishing national emergency communication system utilizing existent traditional facilities in combination with advanced techniques, executing large scale national tsunami drills, improving public disaster prevention awareness etc. --- details to be added ---  &/EFHIJZ_fpstuxy " # / 1 ypga h)waJh(h] aJh(haJh(h%aJ h`yaJo(h(hJaJ hgaJo(h(h)waJ h@aJo( h{3aJh(hCVaJh(h aJh(haJh(h5aJh(h5aJhX5aJo( hX5aJ h{35CJh(h5CJ&IJZ J WXYm01ij^_}WD^`}gdw WD^`gdhgd $a$gd'1 < E r { ' ( * / 2 C X [ \ _   % + , 5 6 k l I J Ǿзз槡ǛǔǔNjǧ} hhaJo( hBaJo(h(haJ h&aJo( hqaJ h ?aJ h ?aJo(h(hgaJ hgaJo(h(h4TaJh(h] aJ hgaJh(hhaJ hXuaJo(h(h/0saJh(h;BMaJ h)waJo(/J . .LN_v !9:;GJm~:>OYstvܫ h (aJo( hbaJo( haaJo( haJo( haJo( h&YIaJo( hraJo( h09aJo( h@aJo( h9 aJo( hw?aJo( h)waJo( hu|uaJo(@v UVWXY\cdlm 1o}~Ik»­}}}v}o}o}o} hxNaJo( haaJo( h aJo(h(h1}aJh(hrKaJh(h;BMaJ hbAaJo( hy%aJo( h aJo( hM0aJo( h{3aJo(h(h aJ h aJo( haJo(h(hbaJo( h3[AaJo( h@aJo( hA<aJo( h(aJo((,5:DOijqs   :?IDMghijrsvǹǹ㯦h(h;BMaJ hw aJo( hjaJh(haJh(hhaJo( h,aJo( h? aJo( hM?aJo( h&aJo( ha-aJo( h aJo( hxNaJo( h.aJo( h aJo( hGaJo(6vq ;CJ\]^_jks||*-U 2DɿЎ}h(hH7aJo( hBH_aJo( hjaJo( hAaJo( haJo( h;BMaJo( haaJo( hH7aJo( h4aJo(h(h^5aJo( hhaJo( h? aJo( h^5aJo( h&aJo(h(h;BMaJh(hrKaJh(hHQaaJ0|`a !!%!,!K"Q"h#l#$$$$$$üõî}sl hr<aJo(h(h~aJo( h]aJo( hBaJo( h~aJo( h5aJo( hGlaJo( heaJo( h?NaJo( hBH_aJo( hEaJo( h`aJo( h$aJo( hLaJo( h;BMaJo(h(hHQaaJ haJo( haJh(h;BMaJh(hhaJ)aD {"$$$%%%n&&&&''gd~gdegd $%%%%&,&/&0&4&5&P&R&n&r&z&&&&&&'+'5'J']'''''' hA_aJo( hhFaJo( hvaJo( h-waJo( h,aJo( hr<aJo( hmDaJo( hYvaJo(:&P 1}2P:p05. 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